Java Card OpenPlatform (JCOP) is a smart card operating system for the Java Card platform developed by IBM Zürich Research Laboratory. On 31 January 2006 the development and support responsibilities transferred to the IBM Smart Card Technology team in Böblingen, Germany. Since July 2007 support and development activities for the JCOP operating system on NXP / Philips silicon are serviced by NXP Semiconductors.
The title is originated from standards it comply with:
A Java Card JCOP has a Java Card Virtual Machine (JCVM) which allows it to run applications written in Java programming language.
Mask 0 : 1998 (spring)
Mask 1 : 1998
Mask 2 and 3 : 1999
Mask 4 : 1999
Mask 5 : 2000
Visa breakthrough program
JCOP v2.2.1 – JCOP v2.3.1
Smartcard controller SmartMX2, P61, flash based persistent memory
SMX2, P60, EEPROM based persistent memory
JCOP 3.x (not released as of Dec 26, 2014)
JCOP is an operating system for a security sensitive embedded system environment, smartcard or secure element controllers in particular. The functional architecture can be partitioned into three parts:
NXP offers also MIFARE emulations for Classic and DESFIRE on the same chip as additional (native) operating systems. While JCOP is based on open standards, MIFARE technology is NXP specific. Java Card applets running in JCOP can then be used to manage the MIFARE memory through Java Card API. MIFARE Plus and MIFARE Ultralight are not (yet) supported.
GP is a high-level standard with many options. As of JCOP 3, support for GP 2.2.1 was added, in particular to support mobile use cases JCOP 3 is fully Secure Element configuration compliant.
GP 2.2.1 card specification, core
Amendment A - Confidential Card Content Management (C3M)
Amendment C - Contactless Services
Amendment D - Secure Channel Protocol 03 (AES)
Amendment E - Security Upgrade
Secure Element configuration
From the optional packages JCOP 3 does not support the javacardx.famework. From the crypto and signature classes, some algorithms are not supported, i.e. MD5 and EC F2M. The key lengths (amongst others) supported are AES-128, DES, 2DES3, 3DES3, EC up to 521 bit, RSA up to 2048 bit.
JCOP 3 supports ISO-7816, ISO-14443 type A and B (through SWP - NFC controller) and SWP/HCI. USB low speed was supported only on JCOP v2.3.1.
JCOP 3 supports various extensions, i.e. MIFARE DESFIRE management support for MIFARE4Mobile. It is important to know that usage of extensions used in applets (not part of Java Card and GlobalPlatform specifications) makes this applications not portable to other Java Card and GlobalPlatform compliant operating systems.
JCOP Tools were initially developed by IBM. The first module was a command line tool called JCOP Shell or JCShell. The development tools is a plugin to Eclipse (software) IDE. NXP has maintained JCOP Tools and extended it with a CryptoPlugin and new JCOP simulations. The tools are offered for Windows, macOS and Linux platforms.
JCShell is a Java program, command line tool which also supports scripting. The JCShell scripting language is sophisticated to create test and verification scripts. JCShell has a plugin structure where existing base plugin (similar to Eclipse plugins) which supports the most basic on-card APDU commands such as raw send is extended with GlobalPlatform and crypto functionality. All the plugins are extendable by own functionality (in Java (programming language)). There is a standalone JCShell version without the need to install Eclipse and an Eclipse-based version embedded in form of a View in the Debug perspective of JCOP Tools plugin.